The University of Auckland
2 files

Now We Are 12: Material Hardship. Snapshot 2

This report examined the material circumstances of young people using data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study. We investigated who was living in households reporting material hardship at age 12, to provide a snapshot of the cohort’s living conditions at this time point. This report also investigated how material hardship unfolded over time. The movement and stability of children’s material circumstances from 9-months to 12-years of age was described, providing the first contemporary longitudinal assessment of the timing, duration, and patterns of material hardship from birth through to early adolescence.

The main report entitled 'Material Hardship" includes:

  • An introduction to material hardship
  • Descriptive statistics for material hardship at age 12
  • Longitudinal analysis of the experiences of material hardship from age 9-months to 12-years, using social sequence analysis
  • Relevance to policy and practice

The supplementary document contains details on the derivation of material hardship at 12-years and across time, the imputation strategy applied, and further information on the longitudinal analysis of material hardship.


Crown funding managed by the Ministry of Social Development



Growing Up in New Zealand: University of Auckland

Spatial coverage

New Zealand

Temporal coverage: start


Temporal coverage: end


Data Collection Wave

DCW 12 (12-year)