survey focused on voting trends and decision making in the 1990 New Zealand
general election. Respondents were questioned on: the importance to them of
various issues such as inflation, unemployment, economic growth, defence,
health, social welfare, law and order, education; which party was most likely,
as a government, to address these issues; opinions on existing policies,
leaders of major parties and speed and direction of government actions; trends
in respondent's financial status; party identification of respondent and
parents; voting in the 1984 and 1987 elections; reasons for and timing of
Background variables include sex, age, country
of birth, place of residence, racial, religious and class identity, personal
income, marital status, level of education, employment status and supervisory
responsibilities of respondent and partner, number of dependent children, and
The first mailout was despatched on election day, 27th October. A reminder postcard was sent to non-respondents 5th November, followed by a second questionnaire to non-respondents 19th November and a third copy by registered mail to remaining nonrespondents whose telephone number could not be identified, 7th December. A supplementary telephone survey was undertaken to raise the response rate and reduce the possibility of bias from reliance on a self-completion questionnaire. The interview lasted about 20 minutes and consisted of a simplified and shorter version of the mailed-out questionnaire.
SamplingStratified-random sample. Number of units in original sample: 3,057. A total of 3,057 names were drawn from the main electoral roll. Names were selected randomly on an interval basis, by electorate, making the sample nationally representative, with each electorate sampled in proportion to the number of enrolled voters.A total of 3,057 names were drawn from the main electoral roll. Names were selected randomly on an interval basis, by electorate, making the sample nationally representative, with each electorate sampled in proportion to the number of enrolled voters.
UniverseAll individuals on the New Zealand electoral rolls.
Data CollectorTelephone Supplement by National Research Bureau
Mode of CollectionSelf-completion (distribute, mail back); telephone interview
WeightingTo compensate for an underrepresentation of non-voters and an overrepresentation of voters of the winning party, the survey responses have been weighted within the same number of cases according to the official results. In most cases the weighting was simply on a national basis, but where regional and electorate effects were reported, weighting was by electorate. Minority ethnic groups were also weighted to compensate for underrepresentation.
Series InformationThrough the analysis of political behaviour over successive New Zealand elections, we have been monitoring the democratic process in New Zealand during a period of social and economic change and, most particularly, during the transition between electoral systems: the first past the post (FPP) or plurality electoral system in effect in New Zealand from the origins of the political system, and the new Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) system which is in effect from the 1996 election. The NZES began in its present form in 1990. The NZES’s main source of data are questionnaires which are posted to randomly selected registered electors across the country immediately following each election. Questions focus on voting choices, political opinions, and social and demographic characteristics.
Publisher (e.g. University of Auckland)The University of Auckland